Akhi alomgir pussy


Despite the skyrocketing costs and increased FDA scrutiny, the impacts of these new medicines are showing increasing yields in survival rates for childhood cancers, heart disease, and previously incurable genetic diseases.According to Ph RMA’s latest industry profile, on average only 20% of marketed drugs were capable of returning revenues that match or exceed the costs incurred to develop them.The fruits of such an interdisciplinary approach can be seen in the development of the first experimental organ system, the human breathing lung-on-a-chip.

Akhi alomgir pussy-74

In both academia and industry alike, research involving the discovery and development of drugs and toxins has almost always involved overcoming certain degrees of in vivo animal experimentation and immense financial obstacles.

A team of Harvard bioengineers led by the Wyss Institute’s Founding Director Don Ingber hope to change all of that with a novel technology they have developed–a device the size of a USB flash drive capable of modeling and mimicking the complex in vivo mechanics of living organs at a fraction of the cost Industry The biotech industry in the United States invests heavily in the research and development of pharmaceuticals, spending an estimated 68 billion dollars in 2011 on a mere 21 new molecular entities.

Using microfabrication techniques from computer microchip manufacturing and proprietary microfluidic technologies, this team produced organs-on-chips that mimic the functions, and most importantly, in vivo immunological responses triggered by exposure to particular environments or toxins.

Technology Molecular and cellular biologists have spent years developing 2D culture systems, such as tissue culture plates and flasks in order to grow and study cells under a wide variety of conditions.

Researchers focused on drug development therefore still depend on animal testing and clinical trials in order to observe and study natural cellular responses due to inherent limitations to model in vivo cellular environments.