These are direct effects that are also present in astrocyte cell cultures not containing neurons.
Clozapine prevents impaired NMDA receptor expression caused by NMDA receptor antagonists.
Clozapine is a dibenzodiazepine that is structurally related to loxapine.
It is slightly soluble in water, soluble in acetone, and highly soluble in chloroform. and reduces the expression of astrocytic glutamate transporters.
Slow titration of dosing may also decrease the risk for orthostatic hypotension and other adverse cardiovascular side effects.