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The end of the 19th century saw a revival of this same tyrannical monopolist policy in the Transvaal.
If the formula, “In all things political, purely despotic; in all things commercial, purely monopolist,” was true of the government of the Dutch East India Company in the 18th century, it was equally true of Kruger's government in the latter part of the 19th.
Eventually more than half of these people turned to the self-sufficient life of the trekboeren (literally “wandering farmers” but perhaps better translated as "dispersed ranchers").
The Boers were hostile toward indigenous African peoples, with whom they fought frequent range wars, and toward the government of the Cape, which was attempting to control Boer movements and commerce.
It was largely to escape oppression that the farmers trekked farther and farther from the seat of government.