Predating the


Well preserved genomic colinearity among agronomically important grass species such as rice, maize, Sorghum, wheat and barley provides access to whole-genome structure information even in species lacking a reference genome sequence.

We investigated footprints of whole-genome duplication (WGD) in barley that shaped the cereal ancestor genome by analyzing shared synteny with rice using a ~2000 gene-based barley genetic map and the rice genome reference sequence.

One of the oldest political subdivisions in Virginia, Henrico was the scene of the second settlement in the colony and was established in 1634 as one of the eight original shires or counties.

Its first boundaries incorporated an area from which 10 Virginia counties were later formed in whole or in part, as well as the cities of Richmond, Charlottesville, and Colonial Heights.

Statistical significance of observed segmental duplications was tested subsequently by the one-sided Fisher's exact test (Table S1 of Additional file ).

Background duplications accounted for 11686 gene homologs in rice.

While initial studies based on the comparison of RFLP maps uncovered colinear relationship of genes between rice and other grass species [], detail was generally limited by the paucity of mapped, sequence-based markers.