As Muslim separatism increased, the opposition from Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs increased substantially.Communal violence on the eve of Indian independence led to the dismissal of the coalition government, although the succeeding League ministry was unable to form a majority.The Punjabis found in Pakistan belong to groups known as biradaris.
Historically, the Punjabi people were a heterogeneous group and were subdivided into a number of clans called biradari (literally meaning "brotherhood") or tribes, with each person bound to a clan.
However, Punjabi identity also included those who did not belong to any of the historical tribes.
In addition, Punjabis in Pakistan have been quite prominent politically, having had many elected members of parliament.
As the most ardent supporters of a Pakistani state, the Punjabis in Pakistan have shown a strong predilection towards the adoption of the Urdu language but nearly all speak Punjabi, and still identify themselves as ethnic Punjabis.
The coalescence of the various tribes, castes and the inhabitants of the Punjab into a broader common "Punjabi" identity initiated from the onset of the 18th century CE.