In 2009, Tim Wu, a professor at Columbia Law School, published and popularized a proposal for a net neutrality rule, in his paper Network Neutrality, Broadband Discrimination.
The paper considered network neutrality in terms of neutrality between applications, as well as neutrality between data and Qo S-sensitive traffic, and proposed some legislation to potentially deal with these issues.
Crawford "believes that a neutral Internet must forward packets on a first-come, first served basis, without regard for quality-of-service considerations." These points are often summarized as "any lawful content, any lawful application, any lawful device, and any provider".
President Barack Obama's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 called for an investment of $7.2 billion in broadband infrastructure and included an openness stipulation.
Opponents of net neutrality regulation also argue that the best solution to discrimination by broadband providers is to encourage greater competition among such providers, which is currently limited in many areas.